Assessment of the integrated reaction of onions of different types for the action of xenobiotics for use in ecological-genetic monitoring

Ekaterina Sergeevna Selezneva, Sergey Vladimirovich Saksonov
2019 Samara Journal of Science  
The influence of many anthropogenic xenobiotics constantly falling into natural ecosystems is poorly understood, so laboratory experiments are needed to understand the consequences of such actions. It is especially important to study this effect on plants that are unable to avoid uncomfortable conditions. It is necessary to use a variety of test objects and screening tests that give an integral assessment of biological responses. Such tests include the Allium -test, which allows to evaluate
more » ... city at both the organismic and cellular levels, as well as mutagenicity of xenobiotics. We analyzed the response of three species of the genus Allium ( Allium cepa, Allium ramosum, Allium fistulosum ) to exposure to alcohol solutions of benzotriazole in extremely low concentrations. This heterocyclic compound is widely used in industry as a light stabilizer for polymers and as an anti-corrosion agent protecting various metals and alloys. The biological activity of two concentrations (0,0001; 0,001 mg/ml) was studied. The solvent was 0,5% isopropyl alcohol. Allium test was used to analyze a biological response of the selected onions. The duration of the experiment was 5 days. The effect of benzotriazole stimulated growth processes in A. cepa and A. ramosum in the lowest concentration and inhibited growth processes in a higher dose compared to the control. Benzotriazole had a stimulating effect on A. fistulosum in both of the concentrations studied, however, the stimulating effect in a high concentration was less pronounced. The solution in low concentration stimulates the proliferative activity in the cells of the root meristem of all species. However, cells of A. cepa and A. ramosum meristem are not sensitive to the action of a higher concentration of benzotriazole solution, unlike A. fistulosum , in which cell division is inhibited in comparison with the control. It was found that A. fistulosum , in which benzotriazole causes a block at the anaphase stage in both concentrations studied, is the most sensitive to the mitosis-modifying action of benzotriazole. In the other two species, only exposure to benzotriazole in high concentration led to inhibition of mitosis at the prophase stage. A. ramosum is resistant to the genotoxicity of model xenobiotics, and A. cepa is highly sensitive to benzotriazole mutagenicity. The paper discusses the relationship between the adaptive capabilities of a species and its resistance to anthropogenic xenobiotics, as well as the use of tolerant species as test objects for ecological genetic monitoring.
doi:10.17816/snv201982111 fatcat:zrpm6xogznhivo525eyri2pukm