Using Multitemporal Sentinel-1 C-band Backscatter to Monitor Phenology and Classify Deciduous and Coniferous Forests in Northern Switzerland
Efficient methods to monitor forested areas help us to better understand their processes. To date, only a few studies have assessed the usability of multitemporal synthetic aperture radar (SAR) datasets in this context. Here we present an analysis of an unprecedented set of C-band observations of mixed temperate forests. We demonstrate the potential of using multitemporal C-band VV and VH polarisation data for monitoring phenology and classifying forests in northern Switzerland. Each SAR
... tion was first radiometrically terrain corrected using digital elevation model-based image simulations of the local illuminated area. The flattened backscatter values and the local area values were input to a temporal compositing process integrating backscatter values from ascending and descending tracks. The process used local resolution weighting of each input, producing composite backscatter values that strongly mitigated terrain-induced distortions. Several descriptors were calculated to show the seasonal variation of European beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus robur, Quercus petraea) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) in C-band data. Using their distinct seasonal signatures, the timing of leaf emergence and leaf fall of the deciduous species were estimated and compared to available ground observations. Furthermore, classifications for the forest types 'deciduous' and 'coniferous' and the investigated species were implemented using random forest classifiers. The deciduous species backscatter was about 1 dB higher than spruce throughout the year in both polarisations. The forest types showed opposing seasonal backscatter behaviours. At VH, deciduous species showed higher backscatter in winter than in summer, whereas spruce showed higher backscatter in summer than in winter. In VV, this pattern was similar for spruce, while no distinct seasonal behaviour was apparent for the deciduous species. The time differences between the estimations and the ground observations of the phenological events were approximately within the error margin (±12 days) of the temporal resolution. The classification performances were promising, with higher accuracies achieved for the forest types (OA of 86% and κ = 0.73) than for individual species (OA of 72% and κ = 0.58). These results show that multitemporal C-band backscatter data have significant potential to supplement optical remote sensing data for ecological studies and mapping of mixed temperate forests.