Journal of Industrial & Engineering Chemistry
1902. Since the appearance of the third edition so many improvements and changes have been made i s waterworks practice that considerable portions of this edition have been changed and many additions have been made. The same arrangement of chapters has been followed. Under the title "Drinking Water and Disease" is shown the distinction between normal and polluted waters, and the relation of water supply to public health. Among the additions are the following: typhoid-fever death rates; the
... ath rates; the occurrence of the typhoid bacillus in carbonated waters, sewage, soil, dust, growing plants, river and lake water, and the Chicago drainage canal; the distribution of typhoid fever by milk, flies, shell fish and typhoid carriers; and vacation typhoid. The author discusses the value of B . coli as an indicator of pollution, and the use of a pure or purified water as illustrated by the Bubbly Creek, Chicago case. Distilled water is shown to be wholesome. Under the title "Artificial Purification of Waters," methods of filtration are described. Owing to the progress in filtration more emphasis has been placed on American or mechanical filtration than in previous editions. Drifting sand filters, Peuch-Chabal system and non-submerged filters, sterilization by bleaching powder, liquid chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet light are discussed. Plants for the removal of iron, manganese, and carbon dioxide are described. Emergency purification and purification for army encampments are also included. A new and striking example of natural purification by aeration is given in the Kensico aerator of the New York water supply. For purification of streams the Chicago drainage canal case is cited in considerable detail. There is additional information concerning purification due to freezing and storage. Specific investigations have shown the effect of freezing upon typhoid bacilli. Ice-borne typhoid epidemics are very rare. The author has taken advantage of investigations by the United States Geological Survey which furnish interesting data concerning the amount of substances carried in suspension by Mississippi River. He lays special stress on sewage pollution of rivers, a point made necessary because of the great increase in the amount of sewage and trade wastes emptied into our streams. Sewage pollution not only causes nuisances in varying degree, but destroys the value of the streams for fish life. The Chicago drainage canal is given as an illustration of one method of protecting the purity of the Great Lakes water. The advantages of storage for purification and as a preliminary to a filtration are indicated. The new and very successful method for destroying algae by copper sulfate is described. Stripping of reservoirs is considered of less importance than formerly. Inspection and care of watersheds, especially when the water is used without further treatment, is shown tobe of the utmost importance. Special emphasis is laid on water supplies and sanitation of camps, not only for the military, but, also for unorganized gangs of laborers. The report of the International Joint Commission on the care of the water of the Great Lakes is suggestive of future methods of protecting the purity of this water supply. The distinction is made between the water from shallow wells not entering rock and those which enter rock. The principal addition to methods of obtaining water are the subsurface dams. Additional information concerning the carrying of pollution to wells is given and specific examples shown. The pollution of the Great Lakes is increasing. Deep-seated water includes water from deep rock-wells and springs, having a temperature different from that of the subsoil. Methods of securing deep-seated water are given and the very interesting sea mills of Greece are described. Much water is wasted when an unlimited amount is allowed. Meters prevent this waste and are shown to be unobjectionable from a sanitary standpoint. As cities increase in size, it is shown that the proportional draft for fires decreases. Additional examples of trouble from lead and zinc are given. Iron pipes corrode or become tuberculated. Special methods of cleaning have been devised. The recently discovered processes for the softening of water for boilers, especially the Permutit process, are described. The book is written in a very pleasing style which adds to the pleasure of reading it. The use of heavier type than in previous editions improves the appearance of the pages. EDWARD BARTOW Calculations Used in Cane Sugar Factories. By IRVING H. MORSE. 2nd Edition, Rewritten, 185 pp. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1917. The first edition of this book made its main appeal to the technical superintendent or chief chemist of sugar houses of the old type in which the chemical control was rather loose and the chemical bookkeeping rather incomplete. To these men i t offered convenient formulae and tables for rapid calculations, and it served its purpose fairly well. This new edition is practically a new book and a much better one in every respect than the old one. It is well printed on good paper with flexible leather covers and is small enough to go into the pocket. It does not compete with such standard books on sugar analysis as those of Spencer and Prinsen-Geerligs, but it supplements them by giving a practical, intelligible and thorough system of interpreting the analytical results, together with model form sheets for report work. Both the system and the reports accord with the best modern practice in the most efficiently run sugar centrals, in Louisiana as well as in the tropics. The book also contains numerous convenient tables which it is difficult to find elsewhere and a complete set of standard formulae for ordinary sugar house calculations. Both the tables and the formulae are accompanied by sufficiently detailed directions and examples of practical application to render them intelligible even to the non-technically trained man. The system of laboratory reports and calculations of yields is convenient and well considered. The chapter on Manufacturing Economy is of particular interest. I t shows by simple calculation the actual financial returns of certain sugar house procedures which are frequently accepted or rejected by the superintendents almost a t haphazard, such as the effect of increased maceration on yield. I t also touches upon the subject of turning out products from the sugar house which will give the greatest net gain rather than running the house in a groove with no regard for market prices or for supply and demand. The last chapter has to do with the purchase of cane by the unit system. As the purchase of cane by rich sugar house owners from poor cane growers is a problem which involves not only chemistry but psychology as well, Mr. Morse's particular solution will probably not be accepted without discussion, a t least. I n spite of some hasty proof-reading and careless construction, the book on the whole is clearly written and intelligible. It will undoubtedly prove of much value in sugar laboratories, both of Louisiana sugar houses and tropical sugar houses as well.