Regional disconnection in Alzheimer dementia and amyloid positive MCI: Association of EEG functional connectivity and brain glucose metabolism
The disconnection hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is supported by growing neuroimaging and neurophysiological evidence of altered brain functional connectivity in cognitively impaired individuals. Brain functional modalities such as [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography ([18F]FDG-PET) and electroencephalography (EEG) measure different aspects of synaptic functioning and can contribute to understanding brain connectivity disruptions in AD. The present study investigated the
... relationship between cortical glucose metabolism and topographical EEG measures of brain functional connectivity in subjects along AD continuum. Patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD (n = 67), and stratified into amyloid positive (n = 32) and negative (n = 10) groups according to CSF Aβ42/40 ratio, were assessed with [18F]FDG-PET and resting-state EEG recordings. EEG-based neuroimaging analysis involved standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) which estimates functional connectivity from cortical sources of electrical activity in a 3D head model. Glucose hypometabolism in temporoparietal lobes was significantly associated with altered EEG functional connectivity of the same regions of interest in clinically diagnosed MCI and AD patients and in patients with biomarker-verified AD pathology. The correlative pattern of disrupted connectivity in temporoparietal lobes, as detected by EEG sLORETA analysis, included decreased instantaneous linear connectivity in fast frequencies and increased lagged linear connectivity in slow frequencies in relation to the activity of remaining cortex. Topographical EEG measures of functional connectivity detect regional dysfunction of AD-vulnerable brain areas as evidenced by association and spatial overlap with the cortical glucose hypometabolism in MCI and AD patients.