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Chronic pain is an endemic problem involving both peripheral and brain pathophysiology. Although biomarkers have revolutionized many areas of medicine, biomarkers for pain have remained controversial and relatively underdeveloped. With the realization that biomarkers can reveal pain-causing mechanisms of disease in brain circuits and in the periphery, this situation is poised to change. In particular, brain pathophysiology may be diagnosable with human brain imaging, particularly when imagingdoi:10.1097/pr9.0000000000000751 pmid:31579847 pmcid:PMC6727991 fatcat:dj4o5h2vtvcyvjchkjhgbhkzsq