Avaliação de Metais e Elementos-Traço em Águas e Sedimentos das Bacias Hidrográficas dos Rios Mogi-Guaçu e Pardo, São Paulo
A Dra. Maria Aparecida Faustino Pires pela orientação, confiança e amizade, que desde o inicio acreditou em minha pessoa. Ao Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares e ao Centro de Química e Meio Ambiente (CQMA) pela oportunidade de desenvolver este trabalho. Ao Dr. Antônio Theodorovicz e a Dra. Angela M. G. Theodorovicz, do CPRM pelas discussões e valiosa contribuição que realizaram na parte geológica da região de estudo deste trabalho. A Dra. Elisabeth Oliveira do Instituto de Química
... tituto de Química da USP pela iniciação na técnica ICP-OES e auxilio na fase inicial deste trabalho. Ao Dr. Paulo Miranda pela ajuda e discussões na análise de difração de raios-X. Ao Sr. Elias Santana da Silveira pela valiosa colaboração que foi prestada a esta dissertação. A Sra. Marta Yoshiko Maekawa pela colaboração na parte artística desta dissertação. A Dra. Lidia Katsuóka, Msc. Sérgio L. G. Petroni, Dr. Hélio Akira Furusawa, Dra. Elizabeth Sonoda Keiko Dantas, Msc. Maria Nogueira Marques, Ricardo dos Santos Coelho e Msc. Marycel Cotrim pelas discussões técnicas, valiosas sugestões e amizade. A Emy Komatsu pelo carinho e companheirismo nesta etapa da minha vida. Ao pessoal do CQMA pela colaboração na realização deste trabalho. Fe, Co, Cu, Cd Al, Ca e Ba) sugerem ligação com formação geológica, o quarto fator (P) poderia estar associado do Complexo de Poços de Caldas. Este estudo não mostrou a correlação entre metais biodisponíveis e matéria orgânica. p.iii ABSTRACT The present work aimed to evaluate the environmental water and sediment quality in Mogi-Guaçu and Pardo Rivers Basins (São Paulo State), in the localities of water supply intake for the 13 cities in the basins. Metals and ions analysis of the water and sediment were performed according to methods to procedures described in Standard Methods for Examinations of Water and Wastewater, 17 th edition. The hydrographic basins from Mogi-Guaçu and Pardo Rivers have a large agriculture influence on limnologic, physical and chemical characteristics and this area is unique in the State of São Paulo that the water catchment for supply is only surface and is used for water supply agriculture, public and industrial as well as far other uses, and it is also the recharge of Guarani's aquifer and it is one of huge aquifers in the world. In this study sampling was carried out at in a hydrological period, they were sampled bimonthly for 12 months (April 98/April 99) and analyzed: ions (F -, Cl -, SO 4 2-, Na + , K + and NH 4 + ), nutrients (NO 3 and PO 4 3-) using the Ion Chromatographic technique, metals (Ag, Pb and Zn) using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometric technique, organic carbon, using the Volumetric technique, for characterization of the sediments was used X Ray Fluorescence Spectrometric and X Ray Diffraction Spectrometric techniques in the 13 communities. During the catchment's period was gotten a large number of results. For it was used a computer software programs for descriptive, correlation and principal components analysis. The descriptive analyze was written Fe, Mn and Al getting down concentration after treatment water, the Mg, Co, P, Cu, Na and K elements still at same concentration after treatment concentration and, the Ca, F -, Cland SO 4 2elements getting upper concentration after treatment water. The interstitial phase showed 2 to 30 fold values than natural water. For supernatant and interstitial water, the most elements still at same concentration both phases, except for Al, Co and Cu that showed larger concentration on interstitial phase. The principal components analyze was written six factors: the first and second factors (Ba, Ca, Fe, Mn, Mg, Na, Co, Cu and P) p.iv suggest geological formation; the third factor (Cl -, SO 4 2e pluviometry) the possibility of an anthropogenic influence for natural water. For treatment water the software written 4 factors: the first and second factors (Mg, Ca, Ba, K + and P) have the possibility to be associated to geological formation, and the third and fourth factor (F -, Cland NO 3 -) could be from used compounds at Water Treatment Station. The component principals analyze for supernatant and interstitial phases wrote three factors for both: the first factor (Mg, Ca, Mn and Fe) would be linkage to Granite-gneiss Complex, the second and third factor (Cu, Ba, P and Ni) suggest a linkage to metabasic and Poços de Caldas alkaline rocks. The sediment samples also were analyzed by principal components and were got five factors: the first, second and third (Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Cd Al, Ca e Ba, Fe, Co, Cu, Cd Al, Ca and Ba) factors suggests geological formation; the fourth factor (P) could be from Poços de Caldas Complex. This study didn't show the correlation among bioavailable metals with organic matter.