THE ITALIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
990 men, who understand so far their employers'will to deliver the cattle alive that they leave out hardly any species of cruelty in order, as they suppose, to stimulate flagging vitality. Disease is quickly bred and spreads from one animal to another, and the deadly havoc wrought by storms in some cases almost obliterates the profits of a journey. No insured cattle may be killed, no matter how badly injured. Unless they die by so-called natural causation the insurance is invalid. So, many a
... alid. So, many a poor beast hopelessly ill or injured, lingers out for days a living death. Yet it is not all cruelty. There are lighter shades in the picture-attempts, largely futile as yet, at kindness. Fodder of the best is available, but this, too, is often useless for its purpose. It is cast among the crowded animals and trampled under 'foot in the mire of the pen. Fresh air is admitted when possible by opening the hatches and by the ready device of a canvas funnel. Ventilation, however, leaves much to be desired. Altogether, the sea passage of a marketable ox as now provided for comes as near to courting disaster as it well can. From no point of view can it be regarded as a -satisfactory arrangement. Unless by exceptional favour of the weather, it is almost as wasteful as it is barbarous, and on this ground alone one might expect to see come movement in the direction of reform. The chief obstacle to such a course is that of expense. It would mot pay, we are told, to provide some form of stall .accommodation for cattle. Perhaps not, but there is room for the inquiry whether, in view of the present great risk of loss, any outlay under this head would not repay itself in 'the end. The employment of specially constructed boats would appear to be only rational in the case of a traffic so peculiar in its characters. It will be generally admitted that, even as matters now stand, much needless loss and suffering might be prevented by taking measures to ensure the soundness of cattle at embarkation, the merciful termination of incurable illness, and the prevention of overcrowding, bad ventilation, and wanton cruelty on the part -or drovers. ___ DIPHTHERIA AT CHEAM COMMON. THE outbreak of diphtheria at Cheam Common has unlortunately gone on increasing. In the locality attacked some 40 out of a total of 120 houses have been attacked and mine deaths have already occurred.