Overview of Freshwater Fish Studies from the Pulp and Paper Environmental Effects Monitoring Program
Water quality research journal of Canada
The second cycle of the pulp and paper environmental effects monitoring (EEM) program reported its results on April 1, 2000, and preliminary analysis of the fish survey results have been conducted. The EEM program is a cyclical evaluation of the receiving water impacts associated with the discharge of effluent, consisting of evaluations of fish populations, benthic invertebrate communities, effluent toxicity and other components. This paper represents a summary of the preliminary evaluations of
... nary evaluations of 114 EEM surveys for the fish survey results, as reported by the consulting companies to the mills. Less than 10% of the cases failed to find a statistical difference in the key measurements of gonad size, liver size and condition factor. When effects were seen in a sex of one species, 67% of the time, a similar effect was seen in the opposite sex and when a difference was seen in one sex of one species, 54% of the time, the same difference was seen in the same direction in a second species sampled at that site. This reflects that differences were often consistent between sexes and consistent between species. Results, problems encountered, and lessons learned will be compared for cycle 1 and 2 data, and general response patterns and national trends in reported data will be presented. A summary of research needs is presented, as are recommendations for cycle 3 pulp and paper. New developments in the program reflect some of the adaptations developed for metal mining EEM, including a) setting alpha and beta equal, and its consequences for study design and interpretation, b) discussion of the role of effect size in power analysis and study design, and c) non-lethal sampling protocols for EEM.