Comparative Analysis of Granular and Membrane Filters for Rainwater Treatment
The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of rainwater treatment using two types of filters: one with filtration materials (gravel, sand, and anthracite) and the other employing membranes. In both cases, the quality of the rainwater after passing through the filter met the standards required by NBR 15527:2007 (Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT)) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for non-potable uses according to the parameters pH,
... arameters pH, temperature, turbidity, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, alkalinity, and calcium hardness. The results obtained were also compared with Directive 2914/2011 of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, which deals with water potability, and with Resolution 357/2005 of CONAMA (Brazilian National Council for the Environment), which is applied to surface water bodies, especially rivers, and establishes the possibility of direct contact of the water with human skin. It was concluded that the rainwater obtained from both filters could be used for non-potable uses, such as toilet flushing, garden irrigation, and sidewalk cleaning, as well as for direct-contact activities, such as bathing and washing clothes.