Women and Globalization: A Study of 180 Countries, 1975–2000

Mark M. Gray, Miki Caul Kittilson, Wayne Sandholtz
2006 International Organization  
How do rising levels of international interconnectedness affect social, economic, and political conditions for women? Research on gender and international relations frequently offers clear propositions but seldom submits them to broad, quantitative testing+ This article begins to fill that gap+ We advance the hypothesis that, on balance and over time, increasing cross-national exchange and communication lead to improvements in women's status and equality+ Economic aspects of globalization can
more » ... globalization can bring new opportunities and resources to women+ But equally important, globalization promotes the diffusion of ideas and norms of equality for women+ In an analysis of 180 countries from 1975 to 2000, employing cross-sectional-timeseries regression techniques, we examine the impact of several measures of globalization on women's levels of life expectancy, literacy, and participation in the economy and parliamentary office+ International trade, foreign direct investment, membership in the United Nations~UN! and World Bank, and ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women~CEDAW!, are associated with improved conditions for women+ How do rising levels of international interconnectedness affect the social, economic, and political conditions for women? Competing hypotheses are easy to identify+ Indeed, research on gender and international relations sometimes offers clear propositions but seldom submits them to broad, quantitative testing+ This article begins to fill that gap+ We expect to find a considerably mixed picture: some women will benefit from globalization and some will be hurt; the status of women will improve in some respects but not others+ Nevertheless, we advance the hypothesis that, on balance and over time, increasing cross-national exchange
doi:10.1017/s0020818306060176 fatcat:yztwcnum4nd35mdepseafq6x5a