DeepGuard: A Framework for Safeguarding Autonomous Driving Systems from Inconsistent Behavior
The deep neural networks (DNNs)based autonomous driving systems (ADSs) are expected to reduce road accidents and improve safety in the transportation domain as it removes the factor of human error from driving tasks. The DNN based ADS sometimes may exhibit erroneous or unexpected behaviors due to unexpected driving conditions which may cause accidents. It is not possible to generalize the DNN model performance for all driving conditions. Therefore, the driving conditions that were not
... during the training of the ADS may lead to unpredictable consequences for the safety of autonomous vehicles. This study proposes an autoencoder and time series analysis based anomaly detection system to prevent the safety critical inconsistent behavior of autonomous vehicles at runtime. Our approach called DeepGuard consists of two components. The first component, the inconsistent behavior predictor, is based on an autoencoder and time series analysis to reconstruct the driving scenarios. Based on reconstruction error and threshold it determines the normal and unexpected driving scenarios and predicts potential inconsistent behavior. The second component provides on the fly safety guards, that is, it automatically activates healing strategies to prevent inconsistencies in the behavior. We evaluated the performance of DeepGuard in predicting the injected anomalous driving scenarios using already available open sourced DNN based ADSs in the Udacity simulator. Our simulation results show that the best variant of DeepGuard can predict up to 93 percent on the CHAUFFEUR ADS, 83 percent on DAVE2 ADS, and 80 percent of inconsistent behavior on the EPOCH ADS model, outperforming SELFORACLE and DeepRoad. Overall, DeepGuard can prevent up to 89 percent of all predicted inconsistent behaviors of ADS by executing predefined safety guards.