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Why do early films present the Netherlands as a country full of canals and windmills, where people wear traditional costumes and wooden shoes, while industries and modern urban life are all but absent? Where do such visual clichés come from? This study investigates the roots of this imagery in popular visual media ranging from magazines to tourist brochures, from anthropological treatises to advertising trade cards, stereoscopic photographs, picture postcards, magic lantern slide sets and filmsdoi:10.25969/mediarep/15849 fatcat:kdj2qn2dijewppjc57n25nk4hq