Insufficient Stability of Clavulanic Acid in Widely Used Child-Appropriate Formulations

Ines Mack, Mike Sharland, Janneke M. Brussee, Sophia Rehm, Katharina Rentsch, Julia Bielicki
2021 Antibiotics  
Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) belongs to the WHO Essential Medicines List for children, but for optimal antimicrobial effectiveness, reconstituted dry powder suspensions need to be stored in a refrigerated environment. Many patients in low- and middle-income countries who are sold AMC suspensions would be expected not to keep to the specified storage conditions. We aimed to assess the stability of both ingredients in liquid formulations and dispersible tablets, combined with nationally
more » ... sentative data on access to appropriate storage. Degradation of amoxicillin (AMX) and clavulanic-acid (CLA) was measured in suspensions and dispersible tablets commercially available in Switzerland at different ambient temperatures (8 °C vs. 28 °C over 7 days, and 23 °C vs. 28 °C over 24 h, respectively). Data on access to refrigeration and electricity were assessed from the USAID-funded Demographic and Health Survey program. In suspensions, CLA degraded to a maximum of 12.9% (95% CI −55.7%, +29.9%) at 8°C and 72.3% (95% CI −82.8%, −61.8%) at a 28 °C ambient temperature during an observation period of 7 days. Dispersible tablets were observed during 24 h and CLA degraded to 15.4% (95% CI −51.9%, +21.2%) at 23 °C and 21.7% (−28.2%, −15.1%) at a 28 °C ambient temperature. There is relevant degradation of CLA in suspensions during a 7-day course. To overcome the stability challenges for all active components, durable child-appropriate formulations are needed. Until then, prescribers of AMC suspensions or pharmacists who sell the drug need to create awareness for the importance of proper storage conditions regarding effectiveness of both antibiotics and this recommendation should be reflected in the WHO Essential Medicines List for children.
doi:10.3390/antibiotics10020225 pmid:33672363 fatcat:djj5bqxfw5hrbaupiz4oi5it2e