Prophylaxis and therapeutic effects of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) on renal stone formation in Balb/c mice
International Brazilian Journal of Urology
Purpose: To analyze age-associated changes as a motive for urodynamics and urodynamic diagnosis in community-dwelling menopausal women and to discuss the role of menopause and ageing. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and forty nine consecutive menopausal women referred for urodynamic evaluation of lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms, met the inclusion criteria and were stratified into 3 age groups: 55-64 years (A), 65-74 years (B), and 75-93 years (C). Comprehensive assessment included
... ent included previous medical history and clinical examination. Studied items were motive for urodynamics, results of uroflows (free flow and intubated flow) and cystometry, urethral pressure profilometry, and final urodynamic diagnosis. Results: The main motive was incontinence (66.3%) with significant increase of mixed incontinence in group C (p = 0.028). Detrusor function significantly deteriorated in the oldest group, mainly in absence of neurological disease (overactivity p = 0.019; impaired contractility p = 0.028). In the entire population, underactivity predominated in group C (p = 0.0024). A progressive decrease of maximum urethral closure pressure occurred with ageing. In subjects with no detrusor overactivity there was a decrease with age of detrusor pressure at opening and at maximum flow, and of maximum flow while post void residual increased only in the C group. Conclusion: In our population of community-dwelling menopausal women, incontinence was the main motive for urodynamics increasing with ageing. A brisk change in LUT function of women older than 75 years underlined deterioration in bladder function with a high incidence of detrusor hyperactivity with or without impaired contractility while change in urethral function was progressive. Effect of ageing appears to be predominant compared to menopause.