Characterization of microcrystalline cellulose extracted from walnut and apricots shells by alkaline treatment
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society
In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was isolated from walnut and apricot shells (WS and AS) as agricultural wastes in order to use it as reinforcement in polymer composites. The microcrystalline cellulose was extracted by alkaline treatment and bleached by peroxide as an environmentally friendly treatment, called walnut cellulose (WC) and apricot cellulose (AC). The chemical composition of the samples was set according to the Technical Association of Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPP).
... r Industry (TAPP). After treatments, the alpha-cellulose content increased by about 23 % for the two used cellulose sources. The structural and morphological properties of the samples were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflectance mode (ATR-FTIR), optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystallinity index values evaluated for WC and AC via X-ray diffraction were respectively 86.4 and 80.3 %. The alkaline soluble fractions of walnut (ASW) and apricot (ASA) shells were recovered and characterized by OM and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, their chemical composition was analyzed. The characterization and the properties of the WC and AC were similar to those of commercial MCC and MCC prepared in literature from wood and some agricultural wastes.