A Convergent Series for the QED Effective Action

Y. M. Cho, D. G. Pak
2001 Physical Review Letters  
The one-loop effective action of QED obtained by Euler and Heisenberg and by Schwinger has been expressed by an asymptotic perturbative series which is divergent. In this letter we present a non-perturbative but convergent series of the effective action. With the convergent series we establish the existence of the manifest electric-magnetic duality in the one loop effective action of QED.
doi:10.1103/physrevlett.86.1947 pmid:11289827 fatcat:jnndrgtrava33d6sq36ojx2ire