MicroRNAs in Prostate Cancer: Small RNAs with Big Roles

Ping Mu Su Deng
2015 Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology  
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression either by mediating translational repression or reducing the stability of a target mRNA. Deregulated expression of miRNAs is a common feature of human cancers and a growing body of evidence demonstrates the role of miRNAs as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Many miRNAs have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of primary prostate cancer (PCa) and the development of castration resistant prostate
more » ... r (CRPC). PCa is the most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer death in American men. Although patients with primary PCa can be treated with chemotherapy and hormone therapy, many of them will develop resistance to conventional therapies and progress to a more sever condition called CRPC, which remains one of the most difficult cancers to treat. Since emerging evidence suggests miRNAs' significant roles in the tumorigenesis of primary PCa and CRPC, the potential of using miRNAs as drug targets and biomarkers for primary PCa and CRPC has been gaining more attention. The aim of this review is to summarize recent studies on the involvements and mechanisms of the actions of several miRNAs in the development and progression of primary PCa and CRPC. Additionally, the potentail applications of using miRNAs as biomarkers and drug targets are briefly discussed. JCCI, an open access journal Overcoming mutation-based resistance to antiandrogens with rational drug design. Elife 2: e00499. 38. Ribas J, Ni X, Haffner M, Wentzel EA, Salmasi AH, et al. (2009) miR-21: an androgen receptor-regulated microRNA that promotes hormonedependent and hormone-independent prostate cancer growth. Cancer Res 69: 7165-7169. 39. Sun D, Layer R, Mueller AC, Cichewicz MA, Negishi M, et al. (2014) Regulation of several androgen-induced genes through the repression of the miR-99a/let-7c/miR-125b-2 miRNA cluster in prostate cancer cells.
doi:10.4172/2155-9899.1000315 fatcat:ylbpnbeubbc7znhhgfvemd2wde