Elastic modulus evaluation of Titania nanotubes obtained by anodic oxidation
The use of titania (TiO 2 ) nanotubes is becoming one of the most attractive techniques as surface treatment for implants due its combination of morphology (that accelerates osteoblast adhesion and proliferation), bioactivity and possibility of being use as a drug vehicle. Anodic oxidation is one of the cheapest and simplest approaches to obtain highly ordered nanotubes. Parameters such as applied potential, reaction time and fluoride containing in the electrolyte define the nanotubes
... nanotubes morphology. However, the mechanical properties of the nanotubes layer do not have been completely elucidated and they play a crucial role in the implant long term stability. The objective of this research was to obtain TiO 2 nanotubes using anodic oxidation and to determine their elastic modulus and hardness. The TiO 2 nanotubes layer was obtained in a fluoride containing electrolyte for 1 hour, one group at 15 V and another one at 25 V. The TiO 2 nanotubes morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The elastic modulus and hardness were evaluated by nanoindentation experiments using a spherical tip. SEM images showed highly ordered nanotubes on all titanium surfaces and it was observed that the nanotubes diameters are directly related with the applied potential. Nanotubes diameters are 66 ± 9 nm and 131 ± 22 nm for nanotubes obtained at 15 V and 25 V, respectively. Nanoindentation test results showed a decrease in the elastic modulus comparing with titanium reference and these values approach to cortical bone elastic modulus. These results demonstrate that it was possible to obtain a homogeneous TiO 2 nanotubes layer that has mechanical properties adequate to improve implant long-term stability.