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This paper defines an approach to simulation of natural systems, inspired by complex systems theory. A complex natural system is modeled as a multi-agent simulation system, agents representing living organisms, physical entities or environmental processes. Agents and their interactions can be aggregated to higher-level group agents. The properties and behavior of these group agents are determined by, or emerge from, the properties and behavior of the individual agents composing the group. Groupdoi:10.1109/iat.2003.1241051 dblp:conf/iat/StolkGH03 fatcat:7tmolqh6dzh4pevocimtkpvs3a