Operating room extubation (ultra fast-track anesthesia) in patients undergoing on-pump and off-pump cardiac surgery
Factores asociados a falla de extubación inmediata en el quirófano después de cirugía cardíaca con y sin circulación extracorpórea
The potential benefit of immediate operating room extubation after cardiac surgery remains controversial. Since safety and effectiveness of ultra fast-track anesthesia is mandatory, we developed this work to identify preoperative and operative variables associated to failed extubation after on-pump and off-pump cardiac surgery. Three hundred ninety eight consecutive patients undergoing coronary, valve or combined surgery were included in a prospective observational study of ultra fast-track
... ltra fast-track anesthesia. Primary outcome was failed tracheal extubation, defined as the impossibility to extubate in the operating room immediately after surgery. Secondary outcomes evaluated need for postoperative tracheal reintubation, morbidity and mortality. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were done over 24 preoperative and operative variables to determine factors associated with failed tracheal extubation after on-pump and off-pump surgery. Sixty eight per cent of patients undergoing on-pump surgery, and 87.1% of those undergoing off-pump coronary revascularization were successfully extubated in the operating room. Univariate analysis in the on-pump group found that heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, urgency, cross-clamping time, pacemaker requirement and difficult cardiopulmonary by-pass weaning were related to failed tracheal extubation; while heart failure and difficult cardiopulmonary bypass weaning were variables associated in the multivariate analysis. In the off-pump coronary surgery group, univariate analysis showed that pulmonary disease, urgency, pacemaker requirement and hemodynamic compromise during 'heart dislocation' were associated to failed extubation in the operating room. In this case, logistic analysis found obesity, pacemaker usage and hemodynamic compromise as factors related to failed extubation. Preoperative and operative factors associated to failed extubation could be used as guidelines to improve safety in ultra fast-track cardiac anesthesia. Especially, patients undergoing on-pump surgery with antecedents of heart failure or difficult cardiopulmonary by-pass weaning should not be extubated in the operating room. In the same way, immediate extubation should be avoided in obese patients with hemodynamic compromise during off-pump coronary surgery.