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Due to the limited number of traditional orthogonal pilots, pilot collision will severely degrade the performance of contention-based grant-free transmission. To alleviate the pilot collision and exploit the spatial degree of freedom as much as possible, an extremely sparse orthogonal pilot scheme is proposed for uplink grant-free transmission. The proposed sparse pilot is used to perform active user detection and estimate the spatial channel. Then, inter-user interference suppression isarXiv:2106.04172v1 fatcat:p6rj6j3adbb7tmdr3vfnt7tefm