Genome-wide identification and transcript analysis of TCP transcription factors in grapevine
The plant-specific TCP transcription factors play different functions in multiple processes of plant growth and development. TCP family genes have been identified in several plant species, but no comprehensive analysis of the TCP family in grapevine has been undertaken to date, especially their roles in fruit development. Results A total of 18 non-redundant grapevine TCP (VvTCP) genes distributing on 11 chromosomes were identified. Phylogenetic and structural analysis showed that VvTCP genes
... that VvTCP genes were divided into two main classes -class I and class II. The Class II genes were further classified into two subclasses, the CIN subclass and the CYC/TB1 subclass. Segmental duplication was a predominant duplication event which caused the expansion of VvTCP genes. The cis-acting elements analysis and tissue-specific expression patterns of VvTCP genes demonstrated that these VvTCP genes might play important roles in plant growth and development. Expression patterns of VvTCP genes during fruit development and ripening were analyzed by RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR. Among them, eleven VvTCP genes were down-regulated during different fruit developmental stages, while only one VvTCP genes were up-regulated, suggesting that most VvTCP genes were probably related to early development in grapevine fruit. Futhermore, the expression of most VvTCP genes can be inhibited by drought and waterlogging stresses. Conclusions Our study establishes the first genomewide analysis of the grapevine TCP gene family and provides valuable information for understanding the classification and functions of the TCP genes in grapevine.