1884 Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)  
Concluded from last week.) Dr. Ayer also asked, "Is the milk injured by churning, or motion, in transportation ? My impres¬ sion has been that the carriage and disturbance were injurious. " The gentleman replied that the printed rules of the Milk Association, posted in the barn or on the prem¬ ises of the farmer, require every milk can to be full up to the stopper, so as to prevent all churning. It 's also required that the cow's bag shall be washed or brushed before milking. The milk should be
more » ... cooled in another building from that in which the milking is ¿One, and should be kept in the stall no longer than absolutely necessary after being drawn from the cow. The cars used for the transportation of milk are placed on regular passenger trucks, and ride as easy as pas¬ senger cars. The motion of the car does not affect the milk at all. The wagons used for delivering the milk after it arrives in Boston are made for that es¬ pecial purpose, and are set on two springs, and have a peculiar rolling motion which does not shake the milk. With all the care which can be exercised, the milk is injured far more in being carried about for distribution in the milk wagons after it arrives in Boston than it is in being carried thirty, or even forty miles by rail, liven if delivered in the best possible condition, careless treatment after it is in the con¬ sumer's house will spoil it in half an hour. Often it 's placed where the temperature is raised to 60°or 70o F., when it at once sours, and the consumer blames the milkman. Dr. Barnes asked if it is possible to preserve milk in good condition for seventy-two hours? to which it was replied that this was perfectly possible. A cer¬ tain lot of milk was on one occasion missent, and for nearly a week was lost. When recovered the milk was in perfectly good condition in every way. The firm which the speaker represents, not milk contract¬ ors but milk dealers, supplies the line of steamships plying between Boston and Norfolk, Va. These steamers always take milk from here the round trip, as no supply can be depended upon in Norfolk. On their arrival in Boston after the trip to Norfolk the milk which is left over is always" found fresh and sweet. Dr. Buckingham stated that the quality of milk is often materially affected by circumstances entirely in¬ dependent of the age of the milk or its transporta¬ tion. As a matter of fact the inside of milk cans is sometimes foul, and the corks sour. One way of preventing this would be the use of glass, as proposed by Dr. Morris. By this system, however, one would get the milk of only one a glass, which would be objectionable. The expense of this course, which might be important, is a matter of which he knew nothing. Condensed milk having been brought into the dis¬ cussion, he thought that the Swiss condensed milk, the only one ot which he has knowledge, contains a great deal too much sugar to be a fit food for babies or invalids. In answer to a question about the opinion of the Society as to the value of one cow's milk for babies,. Dr. Buckingham said that the theory in giving one cow's milk is to avoid variation in the quality of the food. Milk from one cow does, however, vary some¬ what from day to day, and it is probable that the mixture of the milk of several cows will vary less than that of any one of them. This he knew to be the opinion of several members of the Society. It is alsothe view that is gaining ground in Germany. Dr. Harlow asked how many of the farmers prob¬ ably adulterated milk to any extent or in anyway be¬ fore sending it to the city. In reply it was stated that such a thing was very rarely done. Probably not over two per cent, of the farmers attempt to tamper with milk in any way. It would be fatal to their interests to do so, as the milk from such dairies would not be accepted by the con¬ tractor nor allowed to go out. The principal adul¬ terators are a set of dealers who supply milk for a minimum price, and in this way build up a large tradein order to sell out. A well established milk route has a considerable commercial value. Unscrupulous men often build up a business in this way, and then sell the route to other parties. Dr. E. T. Eastman stated that housekeepers often accuse the milkman unjustly. In a case known to him the servant was in the habit of taking off a por¬ tion from the top of the can, and supplying the defi¬ ciency with water, and the housekeeper complained that the milkman was delivering adulterated milk. This source of deterioration in the milk supplied to families is often forgotten, and the milkman is charged with adulteration. In reply to the question how the supply of cream is obtained which is sold for table use al an advanced price, it was stated that the surplus of each day's milk was passed through a machine called the " sep¬ arator," which removes the cream and leaves a pure skimmed milk which is sold to bakers, to families for domestic use, and for feeding to pigs. Another method of obtaining cream is also regularly followed. Each day cans of milk fresh from the dairy are poured into large receivers which are surrounded with ice, and are left undisturbed for twenty-two hours. At the end of this time it is skimmed with a conical' skimmer, and about ten per cent, of cream obtained, which is the average amount in good milk. Dr. Edes asked how the milkmen are sure of the quality of milk which they supply to their customers. The reply was made that the quality of the milk is. examined each day, and sometimes a favorite dairy will be found unfit for use, and will be rejected, and a supply from some other source obtained in its place. Suspicion was recently aroused in respect to a dairy, and on "setting" the milk it was found to-Downloaded From: by a University of Arizona Health Sciences Library User on 05/30/2015
doi:10.1001/jama.1884.04360020021006 fatcat:xmyubnhh6zg2lbqbdjrwidusni