Occurrence of Perkinsus sp. in undulated surf clams Paphia undulata from the Gulf of Thailand

S Leethochavalit, K Chalermwat, E Suchart Upatham, KS Choi, P Sawangwong, M Kruatrachue
2004 Diseases of Aquatic Organisms  
The undulated surf clam Paphia undulata supports Thailand's largest shellfishery in the Gulf of Thailand, with landings in 1999 recorded at 70 000 t (metric tonnes) yr -1 . We report, for the first time, the prevalence of Perkinsus sp. in clams in the Gulf. A monthly survey from January to December 2001 utilizing the fluid thioglycollate medium (FTM) method showed that average monthly prevalence was 84.7% (n = 360). The monthly percentage of infected clams was generally 100%, with low
more » ... with low prevalence in May (66.7%) and no infection in September. The monthly mean infection intensity in terms of Perkinsus sp. cells g -1 tissue varied from 0 in September to 187 759 ± 18 970 (x ± SE) in October. No obvious annual variation in intensity and prevalence was observed. Prezoosporangia that developed in FTM were 25 to 75 µm in diameter. A few days after incubation in aerated seawater, the prezoosporangia underwent successive binary cell division and formed motile zoospores (2 to 5 µm long). The zoospores were released into the seawater through a discharge tube formed during the 2-and 4-cell stages. Serial semi-thin sections (1 to 4 µm thickness) of clam tissue (n = 120 clams) showed developing trophozoites 3 to 6 µm in diameter within gills, connective tissue, gonads and, especially, the digestive glands. Microscopic features of different life stages indicated that Perkinsus sp. in Thailand closely resembled P. olseni (= P. atlanticus) reported in Australia, New Zealand, Korea, Japan, Spain and Portugal. KEY WORDS: Clam · Perkinsus sp. · Paphia undulata · Gulf of Thailand · Zoosporulation · Infection intensity · Prevalence Resale or republication not permitted without written consent of the publisher Editorial responsibility: Albert Sparks,
doi:10.3354/dao060165 pmid:15460861 fatcat:a73zz6tjo5eljkq643oprwbhre