Osteoporosis, densidad mineral ósea y complejo CKD-MBD (II): implicaciones terapéuticas
Osteoporosis (OP) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) both independently affect bone health. A significant number of patients with CKD have decreased bone mineral density (BMD), are at high risk of fragility fractures and have an increased morbidity and mortality risk. With an ageing population, these observations are not only dependent on "renal osteodystrophy" but also on the associated OP. As BMD predicts incident fractures in CKD patients (partI), we now aim to analyse the potential
... otential therapeutic consequences. Post-hoc analyses of randomised studies have shown that the efficacy of drugs such as alendronate, risedronate, raloxifene, teriparatide and denosumab is similar to that of the general population in patients with a mild/moderate decline in their glomerular filtration rate (especially CKD-3). These studies have some flaws however, as they included mostly "healthy" women with no known diagnosis of CKD and generally with normal lab test results. Nevertheless, there are also some positive preliminary data in more advanced stages (CKD-4), even though in CKD-5D they are more limited. Therefore, at least in the absence of significant mineral metabolism disorders (i.e. severe hyperparathyroidism), the potential benefit of these drugs should be considered in patients with a high or very high fracture risk. It is an important change that the new guidelines do not make it a requirement to first perform a bone biopsy and that the risk/benefit ratio of these drugs may be justified. However, we must also be aware that most studies are not consistent and the level of evidence is low. Consequently, any pharmacological intervention (risk/benefit) should be prudent and individualised.