Laser-Based People Detection and Obstacle Avoidance for a Hospital Transport Robot

Kuisong Zheng, Feng Wu, Xiaoping Chen
2021 Sensors  
This paper describes the development of a laser-based people detection and obstacle avoidance algorithm for a differential-drive robot, which is used for transporting materials along a reference path in hospital domains. Detecting humans from laser data is an important functionality for the safety of navigation in the shared workspace with people. Nevertheless, traditional methods normally utilize machine learning techniques on hand-crafted geometrical features extracted from individual
more » ... . Moreover, the datasets used to train the models are usually small and need to manually label every laser scan, increasing the difficulty and cost of deploying people detection algorithms in new environments. To tackle these problems, (1) we propose a novel deep learning-based method, which uses the deep neural network in a sliding window fashion to effectively classify every single point of a laser scan. (2) To increase the speed of inference without losing performance, we use a jump distance clustering method to decrease the number of points needed to be evaluated. (3) To reduce the workload of labeling data, we also propose an approach to automatically annotate datasets collected in real scenarios. In general, the proposed approach runs in real-time and performs much better than traditional methods. Secondly, conventional pure reactive obstacle avoidance algorithms can produce inefficient and oscillatory behaviors in dynamic environments, making pedestrians confused and possibly leading to dangerous reactions. To improve the legibility and naturalness of obstacle avoidance in human crowded environments, we introduce a sampling-based local path planner, similar to the method used in autonomous driving cars. The key idea is to avoid obstacles by switching lanes. We also adopt a simple rule to decrease the number of unnecessary deviations from the reference path. Experiments carried out in real-world environments confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
doi:10.3390/s21030961 pmid:33535488 fatcat:ge4vqzozjzfejon5lyxejym7a4