Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., and Arcobacter butzleri from Local and Imported Poultry Meat in Kumasi, Ghana
Salmonella and Campylobacter are important gastroenteric pathogens. Arcobacter butzleri is an emerging enteric pathogen. Data on the frequencies of these poultry-associated pathogens on meat products sold in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Arcobacter antibiotic resistance and underlying mechanisms of resistance to fluoroquinolones in locally produced and imported poultry sold in urban Ghana. Chicken meat was collected
... cultured on standard media. Bacterial strains were identified by biochemical methods and by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by disk diffusion. Ciprofloxacin-resistant strains were assessed for molecular mechanisms of resistance. Among 200 samples, comprising 34% (n = 68) from the Ghanaian poultry industry and 66% (n = 132) from imports, 9% (n = 17) contained Salmonella, 11% (n = 22) Campylobacter, and 26.5% (n = 53) A. butzleri. Higher overall contamination frequencies were found in local meat. Most common Salmonella serovars identified were Kentucky (n/N = 5/16; 31%) and Poona (n/N = 4/16; 25%). Campylobacter were C. coli (n/N = 10/19; 53%) and C. jejuni (n/N = 9/19; 47%). Resistance to fluoroquinolones was high with 63% (n = 10), 75% (n = 15), and 52% (n = 25) in Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Arcobacter, respectively. A link between Salmonella Kentucky [sequence type (ST) 198] and a ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration of 16 μg/mL was found. Salmonella Poona-ST308 revealed transferable qnrB2 fluoroquinolone resistance genes. Markedly high frequencies of resistant Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Arcobacter predominant in locally produced meat represent a probable transmission reservoir for human infections. These findings highlight the need for implementation of surveillance systems that focus on food hygiene, use of antibiotics in animal husbandry, and continuous monitoring of the quality of meat products from imports.