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The evolution of phenotypic traits is a key process in diversification of life. However, the mechanisms underlying the emergence of such evolutionary novelties are largely unknown. Here we address the origin of bulbus arteriosus (BA), an organ of evolutionary novelty seen in the teleost heart outflow tract (OFT), which sophisticates their circulatory system. The BA is a unique organ that is composed of smooth muscle while the OFTs in other vertebrates are composed of cardiac muscle. Here wedoi:10.1038/ncomms10397 pmid:26783159 pmcid:PMC4735684 fatcat:jhl2qgnfujc2lien2xgytljm3y