Smuggled Migrants as Victims?

Alessandro Spena
2021 Brill Research Perspectives in Transnational Crime  
After outlining the UN Protocol's general approach to migrant smuggling, this article raises the question of whether and to what extent smuggled migrants can be said to be victims of this crime. The author argues that an affirmative answer is possible in at least three different respects: smuggled migrants can be victimized by states fighting against migrant smuggling and irregular immigration (secondary victimization); but, of course, they can also be victimized by smugglers (primary
more » ... ion), in two ways: first, if smuggling is so performed as to put their lives, physical integrity or dignity at risk; secondly, smugglers also victimize migrants by profiting of their vulnerable condition, and their need to enter a foreign country, in order to gain economic benefit.
doi:10.1163/24680931-12340022 fatcat:sgl252l5brao7g2zkeajo3y4k4