Twenty-year follow-up of aerobic power and body composition of older track athletes
Journal of applied physiology
Foster, and Jack H. Wilmore. Twenty-year follow-up of aerobic power and body composition of older track athletes. J. Appl. Physiol. 82(5): 1508-1516, 1997The purpose was to determine the aerobic power (maximal oxygen uptake) and body composition of older track athletes after a 20-yr follow-up (T3). At 20 yr, 21 subjects [mean ages: 50.5 6 8.5 yr at initial evaluation (T1), 60.2 6 8.8 yr at 10-yr follow-up (T2), and 70.4 6 8.8 yr at 20-yr follow-up (T3)] were divided into three intensity groups:
... e intensity groups: high (H; remained elite; n 5 9); moderate (M; continued frequent moderate-to-rigorous endurance training; n 5 10); and low (L; greatly reduced training; n 5 2). All groups decreased in maximal oxygen uptake at each testing point (H, 8 and 15%; M, 13 and 14%; and L, 18 and 34% from T1 to T2 and T2 to T3, respectively). Maximal heart rate showed a linear decrease of ,5-7 beats · min 21 · decade 21 and was independent of training status. Body weight remained stable for the H and M groups and percent fat increased ,2-2.5%/decade. Although fat-free weight decreased at each testing point, there was a trend for those who began weight-training exercise to better maintain it. Crosssectional analysis at T3 showed that leg strength and bone mineral density were generally maintained from age 60 to 89 yr. Those who performed weight training had a greater arm region bone mineral density than those who did not. These longitudinal data show that the physiological capacities of older athletes are reduced despite continued vigorous endurance exercise over a 20-yr period (,8-15%/decade). Changes in body composition appeared to be less than those shown for the healthy sedentary population and were related to changes in training habits. Downloaded from exchange ratio (RER) and n 5 20 for all subjects and 9 for moderate-intensity group T1 resting heart rate (HR rest ) and maximal ventilation (V E max ). T2, 10-yr follow-up; T3, 20-yr follow-up; HR max , maximal HR; V O 2 max , maximal O 2 uptake; FFW, fat-free weight. Significant difference (P # 0.05): * from T1; † T2 vs. T3; ‡ T1 vs. T3 and T2 vs. T3. § Group by time interaction. 1510 V O 2 max AND BODY COMPOSITION IN SENIOR ATHLETES by 10.