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The enormous growth in the number of smartphones, internet usage, and internet of things applications require high data-rate transport platforms. Therefore, spectrally and spatially scalable core optical networks are essential. Moreover, the current generation, field existing networks, consume the conventional (C) band of the single-mode single-core fibres. The recent studies evidence that the increased traffic occupies the complete C band. To overcome this, the spectral and spatial expansiondoi:10.1049/iet-com.2019.1191 fatcat:vn76si35nbhepbzfu3um7cshje