Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Natural and Engineered Implants

Frederick H Silver
2016 Advances in Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine Open Access  
Numerous tests have been used to elucidate the mechanical properties of tissues and implants including tensile, compressive, shear, hydrostatic compression and threepoint bending in one or more axial directions. The development of a non-destructive test that could be applied to tissues and materials in vivo would promote the analysis of tissue pathology as well as the design of implant materials. In this paper, we review the methods that have been used to evaluate the mechanical properties of
more » ... ssues and the invasiveness of these methods. There are several fairly new methods that have been evaluated in the literature such as magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), ultrasound elastography (UE), optical coherence tomography (OCT), ocular response analysis (ORA), optical coherence elastography (OCE) and OCT with vibrational analysis that are quite promising. Classical methods such as constant rate-of-strain deformation as well as incremental stress-strain analysis are useful but prove to be too destructive to tissue and therefore have limited value for measuring tissue properties in vivo. While these newer techniques are very useful, they must be modified to consider viscoelastic effects of polymer behavior and compressibility that may occur during deformation in order to provide accurate information about implants and tissues. Non-linear behavior, strain-rate dependence and volumetric effects that occur during mechanical loading of tissues and implants are very important considerations in the measurement of mechanical properties of tissues and implants. Mechanical testing results obtained using these new methods must be compared and be consistent with "gold standard" results obtained from constant rate-of strain experiments.
doi:10.15406/atroa.2016.01.00004 fatcat:lawkuopcdffijee4j6iegj67mm