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The initial access in Millimeter wave (mmWave) 5G communications is very challenging and time consuming. In general, mmWave and terahertz communications require the use of directional antennas to seek narrow beams. However, due to this directionality, many issues can impact the beam alignment between transmitter and receiver. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of beam alignment and initial access in mmWave and terahertz 5G/6G systems. First, we present a detailed overview ofdoi:10.1109/access.2022.3161951 fatcat:wgwrvxyz7relpb3afo4rq3nbli