Environmental Footprint Assessment of a Cleanup at Hypothetical Contaminated Site
Contaminated site management is currently a critical problem area all over the world, which opens a wide discussion in the areas of policy, research and practice at national and international levels. Conventional site management and remediation techniques are often aimed at reducing the contaminant levels to an acceptable level in a short period of time at low cost. Owing to the fact that the conventional approach may not be sustainable as it overlooks many ancillary environmental effects,
... ental effects, there is an immense need of "sustainable" or "green" approaches. Green approaches address environmental, social and economic impacts throughout the remediation process and are capable of conserving the natural resources and protecting air, water and soil quality through reduced emissions and other waste burdens. This paper presents a methodology to quantify the environmental footprint of a cleanup for a hypothetical contaminated site by using the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Spreadsheet for Environmental Footprint Assessment (SEFA). The hypothetical contaminated site is selected from a metropolitan city of Pakistan and the environmental footprint of the cleanup is analyzed under three different scenarios: cleanup without any renewable energy sources at all, cleanup with a small share of renewable energy sources, and cleanup with a large share of renewable energy sources. It is concluded that integration of renewable energy sources into the remedial system design is a promising idea which can reduce CO2, NOx, SOx, PM and HAP emissions up to 68%.