Vaccineassociated paralytic poliomyelitis and acute flaccid paralysis on some territories of Russia during 20 years
Aim: Analysis of the morbidity of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis and acute flaccid paralysis and the results of virological investigation of the patients on 14 territories of the Russian Federation in 1998-2017. Materials and methods: We investigated nearly 3000 stool samples from paralytic patients and contact persons. Isolation and identification of polioviruses were performed according to WHO recommendations with the help of cell lines RD and L20B. We conducted the sequencing of
... he genome fragments VP3-VP1, VP1-2A and full sequencing of genome region VP1 of 45 poliovirus strains. Results: From 1998 till 2017 1257 cases of acute flaccid paralysis were registered on 14 territories of Russia, 15 cases of which (1,2%) were classified as vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. From these patients 9 children were non vaccinated and 6 children received from one to four doses of oral poliomyelitis vaccine. The percentage of the detection of polioviruses from the patients and contact persons in different years was not equal and constituted from 3, 4±0,89% to 9, 5±0,79%. All in all from the patients with acute flaccid paralysis and contact persons we isolated 191 polioviruses, 60 of them belonged to type 1, 55 polioviruses were identified as types 2 and 76 as type 3. Some cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis are described in the article; polioviruses were isolated from all these patients. The sequencing of the genome fragments of 45 poliovirus strains showed that the majority of them had the nucleotide substitutions including neurovirulent substitutions. Conclusion: In order to prevent the risk of the appearance of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis it is necessary to maintain the high quality of surveillance of poliomyelitis and acute flaccid paralysis, to ensure the 95% coverage of children with poliomyelitis vaccine, to minimize the cases of groundless delays of vaccination according to medical recommendations and parents' refusals to vaccinate children against poliomyelitis and to respect strictly the National calendar of vaccination.