Qualifying the T-2 Toxin-Degrading Properties of Seven Microbes with Zebrafish Embryo Microinjection Method
T-2 mycotoxin degradation and detoxification efficiency of seven bacterial strains were investigated with zebrafish microinjection method in three steps ((1) determination of mycotoxin toxicity baseline, (2) examination of bacterial metabolites toxicity, (3) identification of degradation products toxicity). Toxicity of T-2 was used as a baseline of toxic effects, bacterial metabolites of strains as control of bacterial toxicity and degradation products of toxin as control of biodegradation were
... biodegradation were injected into one-cell stage embryos in the same experiment. The results of in vivo tests were checked and supplemented with UHPLC-MS/MS measurement of T-2 concentration of samples. Results showed that the Rhodococcus erythropolis NI1 strain was the only one of the seven tested (R. gordoniae AK38, R. ruber N361, R. coprophilus N774, R. rhodochrous NI2, R. globerulus N58, Gordonia paraffinivorans NZS14), which was appropriated to criteria all aspects (bacterial and degradation metabolites of strains caused lower toxicity effects than T-2, and strains were able to degrade T-2 mycotoxin). Bacterial and degradation metabolites of the NI1 strain caused slight lethal and sublethal effects on zebrafish embryos at 72- and 120-h postinjection. Results demonstrated that the three-step zebrafish microinjection method is well-suited to the determination and classification of different bacterial strains by their mycotoxin degradation and detoxification efficiency.