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Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is one of the most popular, nature inspired optimization algorithms. The canonical PSO is easy to implement and converges fast, however, it suffers from premature convergence. The comprehensive learning particle swarm optimization (CLPSO) can achieve high exploration while it converges relatively slowly on unimodal problems. To enhance the exploitation of CLPSO without significantly impairing its exploration, a multi-leader (ML) strategy is combined with CLPSO.doi:10.3390/en12010116 fatcat:z7lgb2qn2rf7va42mykorqzcoe