Psychometric Properties and Measurement Invariance for a Chinese Version of a Psychological Need Thwarting Scale for Teachers
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
While teachers' psychological needs have been evaluated in terms of need satisfaction, need thwarting of teachers is under-researched. This study developed a Chinese version of a Psychological Need Thwarting (PNT) scale for teachers and evaluated both its psychometric properties and measurement invariance across groups. Psychometric criteria for the scale were evaluated, with satisfactory levels of internal reliability, test–retest reliability, convergent and divergent validities, and model
... ness-of-fit. One item translated from the original PNT scale was removed due to cross-loading. Criterion validity was established, with R2 = 0.54 for the factor of burnout (emotional exhaustion). Measurement invariance was established using confirmatory factor analysis for the factors of gender, grade of instruction, and position. The teachers evaluated demonstrated higher levels of competence thwarting, as compared to autonomy and relatedness thwarting, but overall higher levels of thwarting as compared to previous research. Males reported higher levels of autonomy and competence thwarting as compared to females and secondary school teachers reported higher levels of relatedness thwarting as compared to primary school teachers. The developed scale can serve as a valuable tool in evaluating the thwarting of teachers' psychological needs, an issue which can profoundly impact teachers' and students' mental health and performance.