String and membrane condensation on three-dimensional lattices
Alioscia Hamma, Paolo Zanardi, Xiao-Gang Wen
Physical Review B
In this paper, we investigate the general properties of lattice spin models that have string and/or membrane condensed ground states. We discuss the properties needed to define a string or membrane operator. We study three 3D spin models which lead to Z_2 gauge theory at low energies. All the three models are exactly soluble and produce topologically ordered ground states. The first model contains both closed-string and closed-membrane condensations. The second model contains closed-string
... nsation only. The ends of open-strings behave like fermionic particles. The third model also has condensations of closed membranes and closed strings. The ends of open strings are bosonic while the edges of open membranes are fermionic. The third model contains a new type of topological order.