Candida prevalence and oral hygiene due to orthodontic therapy with conventional brackets
Background: Conventional brackets are often used during orthodontic therapy of patients with malocclusion. T heir complicated construction greatly inhibits oral hygiene, which predisposes to increased carriage of microbiota. Orthodontic brackets could be a reservoir of yeast and predispose to oral candidosis.Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess Candida prevalence and role of oral hygiene during fixed appliance therapy. Further aim was to characterize isolated yeasts according to
... s according to their ability to biofilm formation.Methods: Seventeen participants (average age 17 ± 7 years) were monitored by taking oral rinses, elastomeric ligatures samples and evaluation of Approximal Plaque Index (API) and Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) before and after placement of orthodontic conventional brackets for 12 weeks. Isolated yeasts w ere counted and biofilm formation was evaluated.Results: One hundred and sixteen samples (67 oral rinses and 49 orthodontic elastomers) were collected. Ten patients (58.8% subjects) were Candida-carriers (2 were colonized after bracket placement) and C. albicans was the most common species. The average number of yeasts in the oral cavity showed some fluctuation during the study but in general with an upward trend (adj. R2 = 0.7967, p = 0.07025). The correlation of median number of yeasts with periodontal indexes (API, GBI) was found. I n Candida-carries average API values decreased (adj. R 2 = 0.95; p = 0.01709), while in non- Candida -carriers average GBI values increased (adj. R 2 = 0.92; p = 0.0256).Conclusions: Treatment with orthodontic appliances promotes Candida yeast colonization which is variable over time in terms of strain and species, with domination of C. albicans, without an increased biofilm-forming activity. In carriers, the API value decreases over time, and in non-colonized patients the GBI value increases – which may have a predictive significance for the development of oral candidiasis during orthodontic treatment.