Biodeteriogens Characterization and Molecular Analyses of Diverse Funeral Accessories from XVII Century
A historical crypt offers us a particular view of the conditions of some buried materials (in this case textiles) and the various biogenic phenomena to which they were subjected over the centuries. In addition, significant knowledge can come by studying the DNA of buried objects which allows the recognition of materials, but also to reveal some practice of the funeral ceremony. In this study, the deteriorating microbial communities colonizing various funeral textile items were identified and
... e identified and characterized using microscopic observation, cultivation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing, hydrolytic tests; and culture-independent analysis (high-throughput sequencing, MinION platform). Different PCR assays and consequent sequencing of amplicons were employed to recognize the animal origin of bodice reinforcements and the type of plant used to embellish the young girl. The analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA from animal and plant) was also completed by the application of high-throughput sequencing through Illumina platform. The combination of all these techniques permitted the identification of a complex microbiota composed by dangerous degradative microorganisms able to hydrolyze various organic substrates such as fibroin, keratin, and cellulose. Bacteria responsible for metal corrosion and bio-mineralization, and entomopathogenic and phytopathogenic fungi. The analysis of aDNA identified the animal component used in bodice manufacturing, the plant utilized as ornament and probably the season of this fatal event.