Kidney aging.Geriatric view

L. I. Merkusheva, N. K. Runikhina, O. N. Tkacheva
2021 Russian Journal of Geriatric Medicine  
Individuals age >65 years old are the fastest expanding population demographic throughout the developed world. Consequently, more aged patients than before are receiving diagnoses of impaired renal function and nephrosclerosis. In this review, we examine these features of the aged kidney and explore the various validated and putative pathways contributing to the changes observed with aging. Senescence or normal physiologic aging portrays the expected age-related changes in the kidney as
more » ... e kidney as compared to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in some individuals. The microanatomical structural changes of the kidney with older age include a decreased number of functional glomeruli from an increased prevalence of nephrosclerosis (arteriosclerosis, glomerulosclerosis, and tubular atrophy with interstitialfibrosis), and to some extent, compensatory hypertrophy of remaining nephrons. Among the macroanatomical structural changes, older age associates with smaller cortical volume. There is reason to be concerned that the elderly are being misdiagnosed with CKD. In addition to the structural changes in the kidney associated with aging, physiological changes in renal function are also found in older adults, such as decreased glomerular filtration rate, vascular dysautonomia, altered tubular handling of creatinine, reduction in sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion, and diminished renal reserve. These alterations make aged individuals susceptible to the development of clinical conditions in response to usual stimuli that would otherwise be compensated for in younger individuals, including acute kidney injury, volume depletion and overload, disorders of serum sodium and potassium concentration, and toxic reactions to water -soluble drugs excreted by the kidneys. Additionally, the preservation with aging of a normal urinalysis, normal serum urea and creatinine values, erythropoietin synthesis, and normal phosphorus, calcium and magnesium tubular handling distinguishes decreased GFR due to normal aging from that due to chronic kidney disease.
doi:10.37586/2686-8636-1-2021-76-81 fatcat:bzsw3wmq6rh2jpofa4k3mvlnim