The Association between Cigarette Smoking and Efavirenz Plasma Concentration using the Population Pharmacokinetic Approach
Aim: Efavirenz is still widely used as the preferred first-line antiretroviral agent in the middle- and low- income countries, including Malaysia. The efavirenz population pharmacokinetic profile among HIV-positive smokers is still unknown. We aimed to assess the association of smoking with efavirenz and the differences in HIV clinical outcomes. Methods: A total of 154 stable HIV-positive patients on efavirenz in northern Malaysia were recruited with a sparse sampling for this multicentre
... s multicentre prospective cohort study. The association between smoking and efavirenz pharmacokinetic parameters was determined using the non-linear mixed-effect model (NONMEM). A mixture model of clearance was adopted to describe the metaboliser status because genetic data is unavailable. The effect of smoking on HIV clinical markers (CD4, CD4 / CD8 ratio and viral blips) for at least two years after the antiretroviral initiation was also investigated. Results: Our data were best fitted with a one-compartment mixture model with first-order absorption without lag time. Smoking significantly associated with higher clearance (CL/F) (β = 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07 to 1.91), while weight affected both CL/F and volume (V/F). From the mixture model, 20% of patients were in the slow clearance group, which mimic the genotype distribution of slow metaboliser. An efavirenz dose reduction is not recommended for smokers ≥60kg with normal metabolism rate. Smoking significantly associated with slower normalisation of CD4 and CD4 / CD8 ratio. Conclusion: HIV-positive smokers presented with significantly higher efavirenz clearance and unfavourable clinical outcomes. Close monitoring of adherence and clinical response among smokers is warranted.