Ototoxicity and Platinum Uptake Following Cyclic Administration of Platinum-Based Chemotherapeutic Agents
Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology
Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug used to treat a variety of cancer types. One of the side effects of this life-saving drug is irreversible ototoxicity, resulting in permanent hearing loss in many patients. In order to understand why cisplatin is particularly toxic to the inner ear, we compared the hearing loss and cochlear uptake of cisplatin to that of two related drugs, carboplatin and oxaliplatin. These three drugs are similar in that each contains a core platinum atom; however,
... um atom; however, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are considered less ototoxic than cisplatin. We delivered these three drugs to mice using a 6-week cyclic drug administration protocol. We performed the experiment twice, once using equimolar concentrations of the drugs and once using concentrations of the drugs more proportional to those used in the clinic. For both concentrations, we detected a significant hearing loss caused by cisplatin and no hearing loss caused by carboplatin or oxaliplatin. Cochlear uptake of each drug was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to detect platinum. Cochlear platinum levels were highest in mice treated with cisplatin followed by oxaliplatin, while carboplatin was largely excluded from the cochlea. Even when the drug doses were increased, cochlear platinum remained low in mice treated with oxaliplatin or carboplatin. We also examined drug clearance from the inner ear by measuring platinum levels at 1 h and 24 h after drug administration. Our findings suggest that the reduced cochlear platinum we observed with oxaliplatin and carboplatin were not due to increased clearance of these drugs relative to cisplatin. Taken together, our data indicate that the differential ototoxicity among cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin is attributable to differences in cochlear uptake of these three drugs.