Reviews and Notices of Books
745 The outstanding feature in this"'analysis is that eminently preventable causes constitute much the greater portion of the headings. Infectious disorders and their results constitute more than half, tuberculosis of all orders roughly onethird, pulmonary tuberculosis just over one quarter. Here in an industrial centre injuries and amputations constitute onetenth of the causes. What I would urge as the programme for the new future is : Continue the physical examination of young manhood ; from
... ung manhood ; from its results determine where we are at fault, ruthlessly wage war against those conditions which lower the vitality of our people, and thereby raise the general level of health and strength of our people. And with this, by the establishment of adequate grading, recognise and encourage the best and strongest among our people to the end that, mating worthily, they may propagate a sound, strong stock, and lead in the improvement of the race. Discussion. Sir JAMES GALLOWAY referred to the need for secrecy during the war concerning the strength of the drafts for the front which the country was able to send, for no civil department's information would have been of more value to the enemy. The facts supplied to the Premier, on which he based his remarks on the nation's physique, may have been given with the same predominant idea, though Mr. Lloyd George's instinct enabled him to approach surprisingly near to the truth. At that time, however, our enemies were too much concerned with the immediate prospect to pay much attention to that declaration. Now that hostilities were at an end the information which had been collated during recruitment, and which was now being collected and analysed by the Scientific Committee of the Advisory Board, should be presentable to the nation, and he hoped these statistics would form one of the most useful bodies of figures for the hoped-for Ministry of Health. Sir James Galloway described the way in which the National Service medical boards were set up and the careful selection of examiners for the work was made. A very workable scheme of codification had been set up as a result of 12 months' industry, and he distributed among Fellows copies of the schedule in which this was set forth. He spoke also of the work of examination of women in the W.A.A.C. -a less numerous body-under Miss Turnbull, who was assisted by Miss Cameron. A special type of medical man and woman was needed for this work, and those selected had had 12 months of careful training. Consequently, information of vital cliaracter was available for 2 to 3 million people. Concerning many of the results obtained, the Premier's term "appalling" was not in any way too strong, though the results and the proportions of fit men varied very steadily with the kind of occupation followed. Among colliers 72 per cent., 77 per cent., and in one case 81 per cent. werg Grade I. men-i.e., men of military age. In contrast to these gratifying figures, cotton weavers yielded 19.6 per cent. liraae i., wnne Grades III. and IV. amounted to 58 2 per cent. of the whole. In view of the unexpected nature of these figures, a visiting commissioner was sent down, and he reported that the grading carried out by the Board was, in general, correct. Of one day's batch of 59 men only three were found to be in fairly good physical condition. The people here were said to be hard-working and industrious from an early age ; they had no time for games, and were content to be earning good money. Tuberculosis, rheumatism, and valvular disease of the heart were very rife. The people worked in a heated and vitiated atmosphere, and on emerging into the outer air easily became subject to bronchial and other troubles. Of 470 examined between two dates 218 were found to have unsuspected tuberculosis. These figures Sir James Galloway further elaborated from his returns. All this surely emphasised the need for carrying on this work of examining and codifying, and he would like to see an examination made of all at about 18 and again when they had had eight or ten years' experience of their life's work. He hoped the medical profession would do their best to make this effort a success. Mr. D'ARCY POWER spoke of the ease with which thorough examinations could be made. The Special Appeal Board on which he sat was able to make difficult examinations in eight to ten minutes. No provision was made in Sir James Galloway's schedule for mental conditions, but perhaps that would be provided for. Professor F. W. MOTT spoke of his work on the mental side. He was surprised to find among the inhabitants of a large asylum that 3'5 per cent. were so closely related as parent and offspring, brothers and sisters. One-seventh of the discharged men from the Army were released because of psychoses or neuroses. Sir ROBERT ARMSTRONG-JONES spoke of the great importance of drill in young life, as shown by the remarkable fitness of the inmates of Dr. Barnardo's Homes. Dr. E. C. MORLAND, referring to the suggestion that two or three generations of industrialisation damaged the germ cell, asked whether Professor Adami considered such damage to be permanent or was it redeemable. Sir STCLAIR THOMSON also commented on the importance of the work, of which the medical profession had long been well aware. Professor ADAMI replied. LONDON ASSOCIATION OF MEDICAL WOMEN.- The meeting adjourned from Nov. 5th was continued on Nov. 19th.-After a resolution had been unanimously passed that Regulation 40 D of D.O.R.A. was useless for the purpose of diminishing venereal diseases, constructive proposals were discussed, having as their object the arrest of the present widespread increase of these diseases. The pposals included : regulations for keeping the public thoroughfares free from solicitation by either sex and the knowing transmission of venereal diseases, the raising of the age of consent, the registration of lodgings for young people, compulsory secondary technical education for young people under 18. The punishment of brothel-keepers by imprisonment without option of fine, the provision of adequate numbers of women police and the presence of women in police-courts when cases concerning women and children were being taken were also strongly urged. The conclusions reached by the association are being sent to the general meeting of the Medical Women's Federation.