Congestion-aware power grid optimization for 3D circuits using MIM and CMOS decoupling capacitors

Pingqiang Zhou, Karthikk Sridharan, Sachin S. Sapatnekar
2009 2009 Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference  
In three-dimensional (3D) chips, the amount of supply current per package pin is significantly more than in two-dimensional (2D) designs. Therefore, the power supply noise problem, already a major issue in 2D, is even more severe in 3D. CMOS decoupling capacitors (decaps) have been used effectively for controlling power grid noise in the past, but with technology scaling, they have grown increasingly leaky. As an alternative, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) decaps, with high capacitance densities
more » ... citance densities and low leakage current densities, have been proposed. In this paper, we explore the tradeoffs between using MIM decaps and traditional CMOS decaps, and propose a congestion-aware 3D power supply network optimization algorithm to optimize this tradeoff. The algorithm applies a sequence-of-linear-programs based method to find the optimum tradeoff between MIM and CMOS decaps. Experimental results show that power grid noise can be more effectively optimized after the introduction of MIM decaps, with lower leakage power and little increase in the routing congestion, as compared to a solution using CMOS decaps only.
doi:10.1109/aspdac.2009.4796477 dblp:conf/aspdac/ZhouSS09 fatcat:onh4lfwh7ngafgdrcydwmgfgby