Immunogenic apoptosis in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML): primary human AML cells expose calreticulin and release heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and HSP90 during apoptosis

�ystein Bruserud
2011 Oncology Reports  
several previous studies have demonstrated that both conventional cytotoxic drugs as well as targeted therapeutics can induce apoptosis in primary human acute myelogenous leukemia (AMl) cells. However, the apoptotic phenotype of dying AMl cells has been less extensively characterized. even though specific antileukemic immune reactivity is important in AMl, especially for allotransplanted patients, it has not been investigated whether dying primary human AMl cells show phenotypic characteristics
more » ... consistent with immunogenic apoptosis [calreticulin exposure, heat shock protein (Hsp) release]. We therefore investigated whether in vitro cultured primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AMl) cells show calreticulin exposure and Hsp70/Hsp90 release during spontaneous (stress-induced) apoptosis when cultured in medium alone and when cultured in the presence of antileukemic drugs. Both surface exposure of calreticulin and release of Hsp70 and Hsp90 was detected but showed a wide variation between patients. this variation was also maintained when the AMl cells were cultured in the presence of cytotoxic drugs (cytarabine, daunorubicin, mitomycin), all-trans retinoic acid (AtrA) and valproic acid. Finally, AMl cells collected during in vivo AtrA therapy showed increased calreticulin exposure during spontaneous in vitro apoptosis, suggesting that in vivo pharmacotherapy can modulate the apoptotic phenotype. to conclude, apoptotic AMl cells can show phenotypic characteristics consistent with immunogenic apoptosis, but there is a wide variation between patients and the level of calreticulin exposure/Hsp release seems to depend on individual patient characteristics rather than the apoptosisinducing agent.
doi:10.3892/or.2011.1229 pmid:21431284 fatcat:7557v2msbvg4noke2jyfzz6a3q