Bunch Luminosity Variations in LHC Run 2

Ilias Efthymiopoulos, Stephane Fartoukh, Giovanni Iadarola, Nikolaos Karastathis, Stefania Papadopoulou, Yannis Papaphilippou, Lin, Liu (Ed.), Byrd, John M. (Ed.), Regis Neuenschwander (Ed.), Picoreti, Renan (Ed.), Schaa, Volker R. W. (Ed.)
The LHC is designed to collide intense bunches of protons with tightly defined conditions, aimed to maximize the delivered recorded integrated luminosity to the experiments. One of these conditions is the maximum level of bunch-to-bunch fluctuation in the luminosity, in particular when levelling at maximum acceptable event rate at the experiments. Analysis results of the bunch-to-bunch luminosity variations in LHC Run 2 are presented here. In particular, the observed correlations with the LHC
more » ... lling pattern that can enhance the effects introducing bunch-dependent losses or emittance blow-up from injection to collisions are discussed. In Run 2 conditions, bunch-by-bunch luminosity fluctuations reached 10% at the start of collisions and gradually increased with time, without affecting the experiments as the luminosity was not levelled. Projections for Run 3 and HL-LHC operation are discussed along with envisaged mitigation measures.
doi:10.18429/jacow-ipac2021-thpab172 fatcat:htva4iks5rf6lkutlupw7dbjwa