Sulfur Homeostasis in Plants

Qian Li, Yan Gao, An Yang
2020 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
Sulfur (S) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. S is majorly absorbed as sulfate from soil, and is then translocated to plastids in leaves, where it is assimilated into organic products. Cysteine (Cys) is the first organic product generated from S, and it is used as a precursor to synthesize many S-containing metabolites with important biological functions, such as glutathione (GSH) and methionine (Met). The reduction of sulfate takes place in a two-step reaction
more » ... -step reaction involving a variety of enzymes. Sulfate transporters (SULTRs) are responsible for the absorption of SO42− from the soil and the transport of SO42− in plants. There are 12–16 members in the S transporter family, which is divided into five categories based on coding sequence homology and biochemical functions. When exposed to S deficiency, plants will alter a series of morphological and physiological processes. Adaptive strategies, including cis-acting elements, transcription factors, non-coding microRNAs, and phytohormones, have evolved in plants to respond to S deficiency. In addition, there is crosstalk between S and other nutrients in plants. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in understanding the mechanisms underlying S homeostasis in plants.
doi:10.3390/ijms21238926 pmid:33255536 fatcat:jlp7j6ywcnbqznqrzokbnphbvy