Exploring the Multimodal Role of Yucca schidigera Extract in Protection against Chronic Ammonia Exposure Targeting: Growth, Metabolic, Stress and Inflammatory Responses in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)
Ammonia is a critical hazardous nitrogen metabolic product in aquaculture. Despite trials for its control, ammonia intoxication remains one of the most critical issues to overcome. In this study, we explored the modulatory effect and potential mechanism by which Yucca schidigera extract (YSE) can ameliorate ammonia intoxication-induced adverse effects on tilapia health and metabolism. A total number of 120 Nile tilapia were evenly assigned into four groups with three replicates each. The first
... roup served as normal control group; the second group was exposed to ammonia alone from the beginning of the experiment and for four weeks. The third group was supplied with YSE in water at a dose of 8 mg/L and exposed to ammonia. The fourth group was supplied with YSE only in water at a dose of 8 mg/L. YSE supplementation succeeded in improving water quality by reducing pH and ammonia levels. Moreover, YSE supplementation markedly alleviated chronic ammonia-induced adverse impacts on fish growth by increasing the final body weight (FBW), specific growth rate (SGR), feed intake and protein efficiency ratio (PER) while reducing the feed conversion ratio (FCR) via improvements in food intake, elevation of hepatic insulin-like growth factor (ILGF-1) and suppression of myostatin (MSTN) expression levels with the restoration of lipid reserves and the activation of lipogenic potential in adipose tissue as demonstrated by changes in the circulating metabolite levels. In addition, the levels of hepato-renal injury biomarkers were restored, hepatic lipid peroxidation was inhibited and the levels of hepatic antioxidant biomarkers were enhanced. Therefore, the current study suggests that YSE supplementation exerted an ameliorative role against chronic ammonia-induced oxidative stress and toxic effects due to its free radical-scavenging potential, potent antioxidant activities and anti-inflammatory effects.